Parametric Architecture With Grasshopper 180.pdf
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Grasshopper is a Rhino 3D plugin. Grasshopper allows you to drag and drop components into a canvas using a visual programming interface that runs inside Rhino. It will be very good for you to learn Rhino with this plugin, especially for parametric designs. As the name suggests, the Rhino Grasshopper YouTube channel has videos on this subject that anyone starting from scratch can benefit from. Check it out if you want to learn how to make perfect Rhino modeling with Grasshopper.
Historically architects and engineers have persistently applied form-finding/form-improving  techniques that identify the process of designing optimal structural shapes by using experimental tools and strategies (physical models) to simulate a specific(expected) mechanical behavior. The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century are extraordinary innovations and developments in design and construction technology, which created a situation of architectural freedom, which can be referred to as any shape imaginable. In addition, the ever-increasing knowledge and control of calculations make computers a powerful design assistant that can analyze, calculate, and geometrically control extraordinarily complex shapes. However, this huge technical development contrasts with the fact that in this period new materials or structural systems have not appeared with the relevance of the existing ones, which could suggest new shapes or typologies. Therefore, although the development of new forms is related to the appearance of new materials in other times, the origin of fractured, distorted, and formless shapes in contemporary architecture has nothing to do with new materials or systems, but with the technical, structural, and constructive abilities of nowadays. Due to the significant development of computer-aided design and virtual modeling technology, allowing more complex and precise analysis and calculations, physical models have gradually been replaced in recent decades. During the last decades, many computational methods have gained success in many fields of engineering and a wide range of possibilities are offered by sophisticated software. For this reason, FE methods are now essential tools for contemporary design. In fact, the continuing demand for lightweight, efficient and low-cost structures has a consequence the interest in structural optimization is increasing. The benefits of structural optimization and integrating numerical simulations into a conceptual design can create novel structural systems that are structurally more efficient.
The structural optimization of complex structures, like membranes, shells, and grid shells, has been historically an important research field since the debate on the equilibrium of arches and vaults of the 18th century  and the works of Antoni Gaudi, Pier Luigi Nervi, Sergio Musmeci, Heinz Isler, or Frei Otto and the experiences on physical models [5,6,7,8]. Computationally developed techniques like Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO) seems to approach the design problem with particular attention to architectural, and formal, aspects and replace the physical models of other times by computational analysis, applying these techniques as design tools, to establish a logic in the relation between the architectural shape and its structural support in contemporary architecture. The ESO topology optimization method is based on the simple concept that by systematically removing inefficient materials from the structure, the residual shape evolves toward an optimum . Finally, in implementing our solutions, we are looking for insights on how general frameworks for optimization using algorithms could be realized.
In order to design a computational workflow, we needed the integration of different digital tools: a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) application, which can provide parametric control on shapes; an FE (Finite Element) solver; and an optimization algorithm. For this reason, the workflow was designed in the Rhinoceros3D®/Grasshopper® environment. Rhinoceros3D® (also called Rhino, or Rhino3D) is CAD software developed by Robert McNeel and Associates. The geometry in Rhino is based on NURBS curves and surfaces, which is very efficient to generate free form shapes. Rhino has an inbuilt programmable plugin called Grasshopper® developed by David Rutten at Robert McNeel and Associates, which uses the graphic engine to display the outputs and allows an intuitive approach to parametric design and algorithmic modeling, without necessarily having to have advanced knowledge of scripting or programming [10, 11]. Grasshopper is a visual programming language that enables us to design by means of generative algorithms which use associated modeling and generative modeling . Simulations were done using evolutionary solvers (genetic algorithm) of Galapagos and dynamic relaxation solvers of Kangaroo Physics (plugin) for form-finding, and Karamba 3D(plugin) for structural analysis in Grasshopper and Dlubal RFEM for FE analysis.
The shape has been optimized with a GA, in which the total strain energy is the objective function to be minimized and z coordinates of the NURBS surface control points are the design variables. The evaluation of the result given by the software has not matched structural requirements. However, the design iteration has not been considered because the purpose of this application was not related to tool efficiency but, on the contrary, on the experimentation of structural efficiency itself. The main issue that arose was the shape, which is especially important in both architectural and engineering problems. It was complicated to design because the shape was quite inflated around the edges of the roof system. There is to be a translation from the NURBS curve of the external boundary and to the circular curve of the internal space, the interpolation between the NURBS curve and the circle is quite problematic. Another issue was structural complexity in the shape which will be difficult to construct on-site. To solve this problem, two methods can be considered: first to change the continuous shell into a grid shell, and second to change the design approach. To this aim, first, we decided to change the continuous shell into a grid shell which combines the form with the efficiency of a structure driven by construction simplicity. For this reason, a Kagome lattice (Aniso grid) consisting of triangles and hexagons has been chosen to project on the free form surface generated by the Evolutionary Solver. The lattice structural grid was developed using the Lunch Box plugin in grasshopper. The process is taking a free-form surface, paneling it with hexagonal cells. It generates a flat list of hex cells and by joining the midpoints of the sides of the hexagon cell, we obtain a Kagome lattice grid as shown in Fig. 5.
To this aim, the form-finding process was integrated into this workflow through the introduction of the Kangaroo. Kangaroo Physics, which was developed by Daniel Piker, Kangaroo is to date the most popular tool within the large community of designers using Rhinoceros for integrating physical behaviors through fast simulations within the modeling process. Piker described Kangaroo as a physic engine directly embedded in the parametric modeling environment of Rhinoceros-Grasshopper allowing interactive exploration of geometrical shapes through simulated behaviors based on material properties and applied forces. Kangaroo is a physics engine for Grasshopper. A physics engine is a collection of algorithms that enable a computer to simulate some aspects of the behavior of real-world objects . The shape of the roof was derived by defining a single surface and then relaxing a grid over the surface. The design process starts by describing the boundary NURBS curves of the roof cover. The boundary curves are manually described in the CAD software. To arrange the physics engine, we need to define the goal objects which are Anchor, Length and Load. The anchor will keep a point in its original location and length tries to keep two points (line endpoints) at a given distance from each other and load is a force specified as a vector and the length of the vector is the magnitude of the applied load. Once the goal objects are defined Kangaroo solver is ready to solve the system. The Form Finding process has begun with an assumption of four support systems. The surface was form-found through a network of springs in Kangaroo which balanced the equalization of spring lengths (surface relaxation) with an upwards load vector like the inverse hanging-chain model. It outputs the solved vertex locations, by taking those vertex points a surface has been created to project a lattice grid as shown in Fig. 6. Then a flat Kagome pattern is projected on the free form surface that is obtained from the relaxation method, and then the structure is transferred to the FE program in order to verify the structural performance.
Training Tools are courses for specific tools requiring constant upgrade for students in the School of Architecture (degree, postgraduate and vocational training) for a better academic progress of the subjects in their regulated course. Priority areas are the software of digital fabrication, parametric design, BIM and use of specific machinery of architecture workshops. They are made with professors linked to school and preferably alumni. The learning system will be held through practical examples on workshops. Students will bring their equipment and educational licenses shall be used. Digital documents as well as promotional videos of the courses will be made.
The above passive building energy-saving design method has changed the design process of architects relying on design experience. With the realization of building energy-saving optimization, designers can obtain more reasonable and energy-saving design scheme of the residential building window wall. However, the above studies usually choose building energy consumption, daylighting, thermal comfort, cost, and other related performance on the optimization objectives. However, few scholars consider ventilation, daylighting, and energy consumption together. In fact, building natural ventilation is a method to adjust the indoor environment. It can not only adjust the indoor temperature and reduce energy consumption but also improve the indoor air quality and indoor thermal environment. Therefore, natural ventilation should be fully considered in the building design. With the emergence of butterfly in building software grasshopper, it is feasible and necessary to take ventilation as a goal for multiobjective optimization. Therefore, this paper analyzes the daylighting, ventilation, and energy consumption together to form a multiobjective optimization problem, and then, it uses rhino and grasshopper to build a building parametric modeling platform for simulation, and it uses the genetic algorithm in grasshopper for optimization operation. 2b1af7f3a8